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The project requires that you research a topic that is connected to the content that we have studied in the class. Using five resources (journal, academic website, google scholar, etc.) published from 2011-2017, you will create an annotated bibliography that includes an introduction to the topic and a conclusion.

o   Introduction: Discuss the topic, why it is of interest to you, and how it relates to this class.

o   Annotated Bibliography: Include one per resource. You may use the following structure for each. If a website or online journal entry include the link. Use APA style when creating the reference.

o   Conclusion: Summarize the articles and discuss what you learned through the articles. How will you use this information in the future.

Introduction

Annotated Bibliography for EDFN 645 Paper

Reference (Resource) 1:

Summary of the Article (Not the Abstract):

How does this reference relate to the topic of your paper?

Reference (Resource) 2:

Summary of the Article (Not the Abstract):

How does this reference relate to the topic of your paper?

Reference (Resource) 3:

Summary of the Article (Not the Abstract):

How does this reference relate to the topic of your paper?

Reference (Resource) 4:

Summary of the Article (Not the Abstract):

How does this reference relate to the topic of your paper?

Reference (Resource) 5:

Summary of the Article (Not the Abstract):

How does this reference relate to the topic of your paper?

Conclusion

subjects.

WHAT STUDY STRATEGIES HELP

STUDENTS LEARN?

How are you reading this book? Are you underlining or highlighting key sentences? Are you taking

notes or summarizing? Are you discussing the main ideas with a classmate? Are you putting

the book under your pillow at night and hoping the information will somehow seep into your

mind? Students have used these and many other strategies ever since the invention of reading, and

such strategies have been studied almost as long. Even Aristotle wrote on the topic. Yet educational

psychologists are still debating which study strategies are most effective.

Research on effective study strategies is confusing at best. Few forms of studying are found

to be always effective, and fewer still are never effective. Clearly, the value of study strategies depends

on their specifics and on the uses to which they are put (Schunk, 2012). A generalization

about effective study strategies is that effective methods involve learners in reshaping the information,

not just rereading (Callender & McDaniel, 2009) or highlighting without consciously choosing

the most important information to highlight. Research on the most common study strategies

is summarized in the following sections.

Practice Tests

Perhaps the most effective study strategy is taking practice tests aligned with the real test to come.

Test taking, especially when tests require constructed responses rather than multiple choice or fillin-

the-blank, causes test takers to engage in high-level processing of the content, thereby enhancing

understanding and memory (Carpenter & Pashler, 2007; Marsh, Roediger, Bjork, & Bjork,

2007; McDaniel, Roediger, & McDermott, 2007; Rohrer & Pashler, 2010). Furthermore, the practice

test reminds you what you know and do not know, so that you can focus your studying most

efficiently. Working in a study group that makes up practice tests for each other can be particularly

effective (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2010).

Note-Taking

A common study strategy used both in reading and in learning from lectures, note-taking can be

effective for certain types of material because it requires mental processing of main ideas as one

makes decisions about what to write. However, the effects of note-taking have been found to be

inconsistent. Positive effects are most likely when note-taking is used for complex conceptual material

in which the critical task is to identify the main ideas (Kobayashi, 2005; Peverly et al., 2007).

Also, note-taking that requires some mental processing is more effective than simply writing down

what was read (Igo, Bruning, & McCrudden, 2005). For example, Bretzing and Kulhavy (1981)

found that writing paraphrase notes (stating the main ideas in different words) and taking notes in

preparation to teach others the material are effective note-taking strategies because they require a

high degree of mental processing of the information.

One apparently effective means of increasing the value of students’ note-taking is for you

to provide partial notes before a lecture or reading, giving students categories to direct their own

note-taking. Several studies have found that this practice, combined with student note-taking and

review, increases student learning (Robinson, Katayama, Beth, Odom, & Hsieh, 2004).

Underlining

Perhaps the most common study strategy is underlining or highlighting. Yet despite the widespread

use of this method, research on underlining generally finds few benefits (Anderson & Armbruster,

1984; Gaddy, 1998). The problem is that most students fail to make decisions about what material

is most critical and simply underline too much. When students are asked to underline the one

sentence in each paragraph that is most important, they do retain more, probably because deciding

which is the most important sentence requires a higher level of processing (Snowman, 1984).

Summarizing

Summarizing involves writing brief statements that represent the main ideas of the information

being read. The effectiveness of this strategy depends on how it is used (Marzano, 2010). One effective

way is to have students write one-sentence summaries after reading each paragraph (Wittrock,

1991). Another is to have students prepare summaries that are intended to help others learn the

material—partly because this activity forces the summarizer to be brief and to consider seriously

what is important and what is not.

Writing to Learn

A growing body of evidence supports the idea that having students explain in writing the

content they are learning helps them understand and remember it (Klein, 1999). For example,

Fellows (1994) had sixth-graders in a 12-week science unit on states of matter write about their

understandings of the concepts at several points in the unit. A control group studied the same

content without writing. The writing group retained substantially more of the content at posttest.

This and other studies find that focused writing assignments help children learn the content

about which they are writing. However, evidence is much more mixed regarding the effects of

less focused “journal writing,” in which students keep logs of their ideas and observations.

Outlining and Concept Mapping

A related family of study strategies requires the student to represent the material studied in skeletal

form. These strategies include outlining, networking, and concept mapping. Outlining presents

the main points of the material in a hierarchical format, with each detail organized under a higherlevel

category. In networking and concept mapping, students identify main ideas and then diagram

connections between them (Hyerle, 1995; Robinson & Skinner, 1996). For example, the

schematic representation of the concept “bison” shown in Figure 6.3 might have been produced by

students themselves as a network to summarize factual material about bison and their importance

to Plains Indians (see Clark, 1990; Rafoth, Leal, & De Fabo, 1993).

Research on outlining, networking, and concept mapping is limited and inconsistent but

generally finds that these methods are helpful as study aids (Nesbit & Adesope, 2006).

The PQ4R Method

One of the best-known study techniques for helping students understand and remember what

they read is the PQ4R method (Thomas & Robinson, 1972), which is based on an earlier version

known as SQ3R, developed by F. P. Robinson (1961). The acronym stands for preview, question, read,

reflect, recite, and review.

Research has shown the effectiveness of the PQ4R method for older children (Adams,

Carnine, & Gersten, 1982), and the reasons seem clear. Following the PQ4R procedure focuses

students on the meaningful organization of information and involves them in other effective strategies,

such as question generation, elaboration, and distributed practice (opportunities to review

information over a period of time) (Anderson, 1990).

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