EXAM ANSWER Paper instructions:i

EXAM ANSWER
Paper instructions:i
Directions: Please choose the BEST answer for each multiple-choice item. If I find answers unclear, no credit will be given. If you offer more than one, I will take the first in the sequence.

Answers: You will type your answers, and submit them electronically like all other assignments. Identify yourself, the course and the content at the top of the page. Itemize each answer as follows:

1. Z
2. V
3. J
4. (and so on through 50…)

You do not need to write out the questions again; just provide the answers. Make sure the font is easily readable. If you do not identify yourself, the course and the content (for example, “Exam 1 Answers”), you will lose 5 points. I need this for record-keeping purposes.

Resources: You are permitted to use any course materials at your disposal. The textbook, presentations, notes you might have taken, completed study guides or the like. YOU ARE NOT PERMITTED TO USE EACH OTHER. I expect everyone to work independently, and request that you report any instances of collaboration. Please uphold the integrity of the exam, and the examination process.

 

 

 

Directions: Please choose the BEST answer for each multiple-choice item. If I find answers unclear, no credit will be given. If you offer more than one, I will take the first in the sequence.

Answers: You will type your answers, and submit them electronically like all other assignments. Identify yourself, the course and the content at the top of the page. Itemize each answer as follows:

1. Z
2. V
3. J
4. (and so on through 50…)

You do not need to write out the questions again; just provide the answers. Make sure the font is easily readable. If you do not identify yourself, the course and the content (for example, “Exam 1 Answers”), you will lose 5 points. I need this for record-keeping purposes.

Resources: You are permitted to use any course materials at your disposal. The textbook, presentations, notes you might have taken, completed study guides or the like. YOU ARE NOT PERMITTED TO USE EACH OTHER. I expect everyone to work independently, and request that you report any instances of collaboration. Please uphold the integrity of the exam, and the examination process.

Good luck!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Sociology is:
a. Mostly what everybody knows
b. Generalizations about social phenomenon
c. The systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society
d. Looking at things from the group level

2. An awareness of the relationship between the individual and the larger society is known as:
a. Sociological insight
b. Sociological understanding
c. Sociological imagination
d. Sociological perspective

3. Who coined the term Sociology?
a. Karl Marx
b. August Comte
c. Emile Durkheim
d. Max Weber

4. Who would say the family, as a social institution, exists to provide roles for individuals, designates which intimate relationships are permissible and creates a division of labor for domestic and public work, adding order and stability to society?
a. A functionalist
b. A conflict theorist
c. A symbolic interactionist

5. Conflict theory emphasizes:
a. Society is primarily stable and orderly
b. Social relations are conditioned by conflict over valued resources
c. Our social world is constructed through human interactions

6. A complex, integrated set of social norms organized around the preservation of a basic, societal value is known as:
a. Ideologies
b. Social structure
c. Social institution
d. Society

7. The relatively permanent components of our social environment are known as:
a. Ideologies
b. Social structure
c. Social institutions
d. Society

 

 

8. For Weber, rationality and bureaucracy come with a price. The rules and regulations undermine the human condition to the point society cannot escape the system. He called this:
a. Disillusionment
b. The Iron Cage of Rationality
c. Alienation
d. Disenchantment

9. Schools often introduce children to deviant behavior, as they learn this from peer groups. This is BEST understood as:
a. A function of education
b. A dysfunction of education
c. A manifest function of education
d. A latent function of education

10. Hegemony is:
a. The process of groups becoming more similar to each other
b. The differences that emerge from human interaction between groups
c. The dominance of one social group over another
d. The changing social landscape towards a more diverse arrangement

11. The Thomas Theorem suggests:
a. Symbols are those items that stand for something else, and the world is interpreted through them
b. The things we define as real, are real in their consequences
c. Perceptions are expressed through language, so language is what makes social life real
d. The symbolic representations one uses, shapes her or his perception of reality, and thus thoughts and opinions

12. Culture is:
a. The totality of who we are as a society
b. A toolkit for understanding our social worlds
c. A collection of material and non-material elements
d. All of the above

13. Shared preferences about what is good and bad, right and wrong, and desirable or undesirable are known as:
a. Norms
b. Values
c. Beliefs
d. Ideologies

14. Sociologists conceptualize a symbol as:
a. Anything that carries meaning to people who share a culture
b. Any material cultural trait
c. Any gesture that conveys insult to others
d. Social patters that cause culture shock
15. Expectations about how we should behave in a given social context are known as:
a. Norms
b. Values
c. Beliefs
d. Ideologies

16. Why do sanctions exist?
a. To make us self-conscious
b. To maintain order
c. To impact future behavior
d. To reinforce inequalities

17. Non-financial social assets that can help us attain social mobility are known as:
a. Networks
b. Cultural capital
c. Social capital

18. The tendency for material culture to change faster than non-material culture, leading to a period of maladjustment, where ideas need to catch up is known as:
a. Acculturation
b. Assimilation
c. Culture shock
d. Culture lag

19. The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states:
a. Symbols are those items that stand for something else, and the world is interpreted through them
b. The things defined as real are real in their consequences
c. Perceptions are expressed through language, so language is what makes social life real
d. The symbolic representations one uses, like language, shapes her or his perception of reality, and thus thoughts and opinions

20. The Great Social Transformation:
a. Turned social relations toward associational ties
b. Made human relationships less personal
c. Lessened the intimacy of face to face interactions
d. All of the above

21. Societies like the United States are considered ________, whereas most societies around the world are considered ________.
a. Industrial; agrarian
b. Post-industrial; industrial
c. Industrial; transitional
d. Post-industrial; transitional

 

 

22. The lifelong process where human actors learn to be members of society and culture, and acquire a self is known as:
a. Education
b. Socialization
c. Moral development
d. Cognitive learning

23. Why is the family an important agent of socialization?
a. It creates confusion when parents are separated or there is a single parent
b. It determines how children will see the world throughout the life-course
c. It gives children a social location (i.e., socio-economic status)
d. It provides children with formal education before reaching schools

24. When we imagine how other see us, evaluate what they appear to think, and define and image of self based on these impressions, we are exercising:
a. The Looking Glass Self
b. The Generalized Other
c. Facework
d. Impression Management

25. Over the life course, maturity leads to greater autonomy. At the same time, this can create a moral dilemma, meaning:
a. We are required to sanction others who are not following the moral code of society, even though we might not want to
b. We find that social norms and values are not black and white, and come to question what constitutes proper behavior
c. We feel stuck in that we have to act in certain ways, despite feeling they do not align with how things should be
d. We find an increasing number of sanctions, as we act more and more how we want to

26. The goal of a total institution is:
a. To help integrate a troubled patient into the outside world
b. To a person greater choice about how they live
c. To radically alter a person’s personality and behavior
d. To encourage lifelong learning in a supervised context

27. When individuals take account of all social attitudes, expectations and viewpoints, they have taken on:
a. The collective consciousness
b. The generalized other
c. The culture
d. The social structure

 

 
28. Changing our presentations of self to create appearances that will satisfy particular audiences is known as:
a. The Looking Glass Self
b. The Generalized Other
c. Facework
d. Impression Management

29. Simon has recently been promoted in his company, moving to higher floor, and away from his former coworkers with whom he was quite close. He attributes newfound stress to the fact that he has more obligations to his new boss. However, his work buddies are upset that he cannot join them for drinks at days end like he used to. Simon is experiencing:
a. Role conflict
b. Role stress
c. Role strain
d. Status strain

30. Justin got the job of his dreams right out of college. However, he made some significant changes in preparation for it. He bought new clothes, started going to bed earlier and went out less often than he used to. Justin is engaging:
a. Anticipatory socialization
b. Resocialization
c. Moral socialization
d. Personal growth

31. According to sociologists, which of the following is NOT considered a group?
a. Concert goers
b. Homeowners
c. Shoppers waiting in line at a checkout
d. None of the above are groups

32. Which of the following is the BEST example of a primary group?
a. A family gathered to celebrate a religious holiday
b. Carpenters gathering at a work site
c. A student government meeting
d. A reunion of the graduating class of 1997

33. Which of the following is the BEST example of a secondary group?
a. A fraternity chapter meeting on campus
b. A Microsoft Corporation awards banquet
c. Parents meeting with their daughter and her coach
d. Girl scouts at a cookout

34. A label society uses to devalue members of certain social groups is referred to as:
a. Stigma
b. Minority
c. Underclass

 

35. Differential Association Theory suggests that deviant behavior is:
a. Learned through socialization, and acted on when there are more definitions favorable to deviance
b. The result of a discrepancy between conventional goals and the means to attain them, so people turn to deviance
c. The product of a lack of social attachments and bonds that would strongly encourage conformity to conventional norms and practices
d. The outcome of the process of labeling individuals as deviant, who in turn, assume the behaviors associated with the label

36. How does labeling create deviance?
a. It narrows options of those labeled
b. Others internalize the definition and support it
c. It defines the behaviors of labeled individuals as deviant
d. All of the above

37. In the functionalist tradition, some deviance in society might not be bad. Why so?
a. If there were no deviant people to put in jail, police and other authorities would face massive unemployment
b. Deviance is entertaining, and our society places great value on entertainment
c. Deviance affirms cultural values, reminding members of society of what is appropriate or inappropriate
d. None of the above

38. According to Marx, people are alienated in modern, industrial society because:
a. Capitalism creates a 2-class, exploitative system
b. The nature of industrial labor takes control away from the worker
c. Individuals assume a false consciousness that blinds them to their objective conditions
d. All of the above

39. Mead’s game stage is characterized by:
a. Imitation
b. Taking on the role of one other
c. Taking multiple role simultaneously

40. Which is NOT accurate regarding the difference between deviance and crime?
a. Deviance is a violation of any norm, whereas crime is declared an illegal act
b. Crime is not always deviant, and deviance is not always criminal
c. Deviance and crime can carry formal or informal sanctions
d. All societies create mechanisms to control crime, but may not create mechanisms to control deviance

41. Mead’s play stage is characterized by:
a. Imitation
b. Taking on the role of one other
c. Taking multiple roles simultaneously

 

42. Any position that an individual holds in society is known as:
a. A social status
b. A social role
c. An occupation
d. A social class

43. A behavioral expectation associated with one’s position in society is known as:
a. A social status
b. A social role
c. An occupation
d. A social class

44. A group that we assign meaningfulness to, and use to evaluate ourselves by is:
a. An in-group
b. A primary group
c. A secondary group
d. A reference group

45. What is an ascribed status?
a. A status that is conferred to us at birth
b. A status that is given to us on the basis of merit
c. A status that takes importance over all others
d. A status that cannot be changed over time

46. What is an achieved status?
a. A status that is conferred to us at birth
b. A status that is given to us on the basis of merit
c. A status that takes importance over all others
d. A status that cannot be changed over time

47. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bureaucracy according to Weber?
a. It is an ideal type, meaning it is a model of perfection that is never attained
b. It has a hierarchy of authority with a few people at the top
c. It remains flexible to meet the changing needs of individuals and societies
d. All of the above are characteristics

48. Which of the following is NOT accurate regarding McDonaldization according to Ritzer?
a. It is driven by rationality
b. It aims to replace the human component with technology
c. Contradictions emerge from the very principles that work to weed them out
d. It is unpredictable, in that we do not know where it is going next

 

 

 
49. According to Sykes and Matza, techniques of neutralization:
a. Are a series of methods where those who commit wrongful acts temporarily neutralize values that would stop them
b. Allow individuals to drift between the legitimate and illegitimate
c. Silencesthe moral code of society that individuals have internalized
d. All of the above

50. Ben decides to quit his job and start dealing drugs in order to make money. According to Merton’s Strain Theory, Ben is an example of:
a. Innovation
b. Ritualism
c. Retreatism
d. Rebellion

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